Forbes India – Museum, Art: Iraqi museum restores treasures destroyed by Islamic State jihadists
Mosul museum worker tries to assemble larger artifact with cuneiform inscriptions from shattered fragments at city museum in northern Iraq
Image: Zaid AL-Obeidi / AFP
LCollapsed by the jihadists, the once famous Iraqi museum in Mosul and its 2,500-year-old treasures have been given a second life thanks to restoration efforts supported by French experts.
Ancient artifacts in the museum were shattered into small pieces when fighters from the Islamic State group seized the northern city of Mosul in 2014 and made it their seat of power for three years.
“We have to separate all the fragments … It’s like a puzzle, you try to recover the pieces which tell the same story”, declared the restorer Daniel Ibled, mandated by the famous Louvre museum, which supports the employees of the Iraqi museums.
“Little by little, you manage to recreate the whole set.”
When IS jihadists were in command, they filmed themselves hammering away pre-Islamic treasures they considered heretical, proudly announcing their rampage in a video posted in February 2015.
The biggest and heaviest artifacts were destroyed for their propaganda, but smaller pieces were sold on black markets around the world.
The scars of their destruction remain today.
On the ground floor of the museum, the foundation’s twisted iron bars pierce a gaping hole.
In other rooms, stones of various sizes are scattered, some bearing engravings of animal paws or wings. Others have inscriptions in cuneiform script.
The smallest of these fragments, no bigger than a fist, are lined up on a table and the experts are busy sorting them out.
For now, their efforts are focused on a winged lion from the city of Nimrud, the jewel of the Assyrian Empire, two “lamassu” – winged bulls with human heads – and the base of the throne of King Ashurnasirpal II.
These pieces, many of which date from the first millennium BC, are being revived with funding from the International Alliance for the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Conflict Zones (ALIPH).
Alongside the Louvre, efforts are also being made by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, which trains the museum’s teams, as well as by the World Monuments Fund, headquartered in New York, which is responsible for restoring the building.
The base of the Assyrian king’s throne, covered with cuneiform writing, seems almost fixed.
Some parts are held together by elastic bands or small metal rings.
“The base of the throne was pulverized in more than 850 pieces,” said museum official Choueib Firas Ibrahim, an expert in Sumerian studies. “We have recovered two-thirds of it.”
For some pieces, writing fragments or straight lines help teams put them together like a giant puzzle.
“We read the inscriptions on this basis, and we were able to put the pieces back in their place,” said restorer Taha Yassin.
But other pieces without a “flat surface or inscriptions” make them virtually indistinguishable and are more complicated, Yassin added.
A year after the recapture of Mosul by Iraqi troops in 2017, the museum received an urgent grant in an attempt to restore it to its former glory.
After delays due to the coronavirus pandemic, museum director Zaid Ghazi Saadallah said he hoped restoration work would be completed within five years.
But many gaps will remain and posters on the walls identify the lost items.
âMost of the rooms are destroyed or looted,â Saadallah said.
Iraq has suffered for decades from the looting of its antiquities, especially after the US-led invasion in 2003, as well as during ISIS’s subsequent takeover.
But the current government says it has made repatriation of artifacts a priority.
The Louvre has tasked 20 people to help with restoration efforts, said Ariane Thomas, director of the Louvre’s Near Eastern Antiquities Department.
After three missions this year, seven French experts will take turns in Iraq to guide the restoration process, carried out with around ten museum employees.
Once the restoration work is completed, an online exhibition will be organized to unveil the work.
âWhen we said that with time, money and know-how, we could bring even the most damaged works back to life, it proves it,â Thomas said.
“Completely destroyed works have started to take shape again.”
Click here to see Forbes India’s full coverage of the Covid-19 situation and its impact on life, business and economy